The SMEAR-I (Station for Measuring Atmosphere-Ecosystem Relations) station is a part of the PEEX Observing System. It was set up in 1991 to measure the pollution fall-out to Eastern Lapland of Finland from the mining industry in the Kola Peninsula (Russia). It is located at 67°45'18'', 29°36'37'', 390 m a.s.l. Weather station: wind speed and direction, air temperature and relative humidity on 5 levels up to 15m; radiation (PAR, global, reflected and net radiation) is measured at the top level. Gas and particle measurements: air for gas analyzers is sampled on 4 different levels from 1 to 8 meters above the ground. CO2, SO2, O3 and NOx concentrations are recorded, as well as sub-micron particle number concentrations (with a CNC). Photosynthesis: a picture of a photosynthetic measuring cuvette up to 4 shoots in the stand surrounding the measuring station are closed in transparent measuring cuvettes, that are periodically closed and the air within is sampled to find out CO2 uptake of the shoot and thus photosynthetic activity. Irradiance measurements: ambient irradiance conditions are measured from the top of the weather station tower; and in addition, PAR sensors are used at every photosynthesis measurement cuvette to couple with information of the local light climate at the cuvette. Details on measured parameters including instruments used are available on:

Data are accessible through SmartSMEAR (, which is visualization and download tool for the SMEAR (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) research stations of the University of Helsinki.

Data and Resources

Additional Info

Field Value
Principal Investigator Prof. Tuukka Petäjä (station director, atmospheric measurements; & Prof. Jaana Bäck (ecological measurements;
Data Curator General questions on data availability, terms of use etc. contact Contact on data for Meteorology - Petri Keronen (; Gas - Petri Keronen (; Radiation - Pasi Kolari (; Fluxes - Sigrid Dengel ( & Pasi Kolari (; Tree - Pasi Kolari (; Soil - Liisa Kulmala (; Aerosol - Pasi Aalto (
Version 1.0
Last Updated September 27, 2021, 09:22 (UTC)
Created November 28, 2018, 16:18 (UTC)
Parameter name(s) {"weather (air and dew point temperatures, wind speed and direction, atmospheric presssure, visibility, precipitation, rainfall, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), global radiation, UVA and UVB, soil temperature); aerosols (total concentration and size distribution); trace gases (O3, SO2, NOx); forest (photosynthesis, CO2-exchange, H2O, air temperature, growth in thickness and length)",""}
Project/Program name(s) {"SMEAR (Station for Measuring Atmosphere-Ecosystem Relations;; PEEX (Pan-Eurasian EXperiment;",""}
Observing system name {"PEEX Observing System",""}